Cholelithiasis is gallbladder disease in which there are gallstones present.
Small stones can create more problems than large stones. Females are more exposed to diseases of the gallbladder and bile ducts, especially larger women, than the men who rarely suffer from this disease.
This disease occurs because of estrogen, which stimulates the liver to remove excess cholesterol from the blood and guides it towards bile. Overweight represents risk of stones in the gallbladder, especially to middle- aged women who have family tendency. Thus, excess weight produces more cholesterol which is secreted in the bile and over there the potential stone is happening. If you have little HDL or known as beneficial cholesterol and excess triglycerides, you are exposed to creation of stones in the gallbladder.
Types of gallstones
Approximately for around three- fourths of gallstones are happening due cholesterol. Cholesterol makes up 5% of bile, it is not very soluble, but, in order to stay in fluid condition it must be in proper balance with bile salts. If the liver secrets too much cholesterol from bile, if the bile is lagging and creates deposits in the gallbladder it can cause plethora. Then cholesterol creates stones in bile. The process is very slow and painless.
Approximately 15% of gallstones are known as pigment stones. They are made of calcium bilirubin or calcified bilirubin, a substance that causes degradation of hemoglobin in the blood. These stones can be black or brown and often are produced in the bile of people with hemolytic anemia or cirrhosis.
There is a mixture of cholesterol and pigment stones. When we consume foods rich in fat and when the food gets in the small intestine, it causes secretion of a hormone, called cholecystokinin and immediately is absorbed by the blood to the gallbladder and causes contraction and on this way the bile forwards it into the duodenum.
Daily, 700- 800 ml of bile is produced, and inside the gallbladder for around 70ml, but in the gallbladder also can be placed bile which is created during the 12 hours of the day.
Bile consists water, salts of bile acid, bile pigment bilirubin, cholesterol, fatty acids, lecithin and electrolytes – sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
Inflammation of gallbladder is represented by pain in the right rib, digestive disorders and in the acute phase increased fever. In that case, diet should be composed with food which does not consists proteins, fat- free with a little amount of carbohydrates. If also stone is present, the pain are strong and occur in the region of the right shoulder and if it comes to clogging of this channel, jaundice will follow, because the fat cannot be digested.
During jaundice, water without sugar is allowed only for the first 2 days, and then mild herbal teas, also without sugar. In case of strong hunger, soup or stew of vegetables is permitted. Later, young cheese, boiled potato and rice is also permitted. For drink it is allowed use of mineral water. Meat is permitted only when recovery will happen and it should be in small quantities, 100- 200 grams daily. Daily meals should be happening at about the same time, on 4 to 5 hours.
Inflammation of gallbladder can be acute or chronic. In case of chronic inflammation of the gallbladder during food intake pain will happen which will cause belching and bloating.
Diet measures in gallstones should be implemented in two directions:
Proper nutrition requires reducing of excess weight because it usually involves larger people. The diet should not consist ingredients and substances which can worsen the condition of patients. The food can affect the stone, by reducing or increasing the saturation of bile with cholesterol – which is primary factor in the formation of bile.
Some foods may serve as means for dissolving the cholesterol and making it less dangerous. Diet can regulate contraction of the gallbladder which is responsible to expulsion of the stones in the channel and are causing painful attacks.
Allowed foods in the diet of patients with stones in the gallbladder:
- Preference should be given to cracker of whole wheat, it can be used cooked brown rice and pasta without eggs.
- Use as many whole grains as you can
- It is permitted usage of boiled or roasted on a hotplate lean meat or fish
- From eggs, it is allowed only whites because yolks can cause contractions
- It is allowed lean cheese and yogurt
- From visible fat, raw vegetable oils have priority, especially olive oil. It is allowed usage of butter and oil.
- It is recommended vegetables that can be consume in the form of puree.
- In small amounts it is allowed juicy fruit, compote and roasted fruit.
- Alkaline mineral water and consumption of mild herbal teas are also recommended.
Also, to improve the secretion of bile, it is useful every morning to drink juice from radish, the first day 1 glass, second day, 2 glasses, third day 3 glasses and then decrease the glasses. After that, make pause of 7 days and repeat the treatment again in the same way. Juice from radish is strictly forbidden to people who are suffering from inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
Forbidden ingredients in case of stones in bile:
- Fatty, fried and processed meat and ingredients rich with cholesterol: a fish roe, organ meat, sea food
- Scrambled eggs
- Drinks with cream
- Many sweet foods, very cold and very hot foods and drinks
- Avoid vegetables that are rich in cellulose such as: beans, cucumbers, cabbage, carrots, onions, leeks and fried potatoes.
- It is not allowed usage of apples and stone fruits.
- It is forbidden usage of whole chocolate
- Tea, coffee, alcohol and cold drinks
- Strong spices as pepper, mustard, mayonnaise and vinegar.
Excess weight is very dangerous for overall health. It does many fat which lead to creation of larger amount of cholesterol secreted in bile and there the stone occurs.
Also, strict diets and rapid weight loss are dangerous.
It is recommended daily consumption of 2 teaspoons of cold pressed olive oil, which is necessary to stimulate the gallbladder in order to reduce the possibility of occurrence of gallstone.
It is very important to not skip breakfast, and making big pauses due to meal.